Electrical Installation Handbook By ABB

Electrical Installation Handbook 

Protection, control and electrical devices

General aspects 

1 Standards
1.1 General aspects
1.2 IEC Standards for electrical installation

Part 1

Protection and control devices

1 Protection and control devices
1.1 Circuit-breaker nameplates
1.2 Main definitions 
1.3 Types of releases
 1.3.1 Thermomagnetic releases and  only magnetic releases
 1.3.2 Electronic releases
 1.3.3 Residual current devices

2 General characteristics

2.1 Electrical characteristics of circuit breakers 
2.2 Trip curves
 2.2.1 Software “Curves 1.0”
 2.2.2 Trip curves of thermomagnetic releases
 2.2.3 Functions of electronic releases
2.3 Limitation curves
2.4 Specific let-through energy curves
2.5 Temperature derating
2.6 Altitude derating 
2.7 Electrical characteristics of switch  disconnectors 

3 Protection coordination

3.1 Protection coordination 
3.2 Discrimination tables 
3.3 Back-up tables 
3.4 Coordination tables between circuit breakers and switch disconnectors 

4 Special applications

4.1 Direct current networks 
4.2 Networks at particular frequencies; 400 Hz  and 16 2/3 Hz 
 4.2.1 400 Hz networks 
 4.2.2 16 2/3 Hz networks 
4.3 1000 Vdc and 1000 Vac networks 
4.4 Automatic Transfer Switches 

5 Switchboards

5.1 Electrical switchboards 
5.2 MNS switchboards 
5.3 ArTu distribution switchboards 
Annex A: Protection against short-circuit effects
inside low-voltage switchboards 
Annex B: Temperature rise evaluation according to IEC 60890 
Annex C: Application examples: Advanced protection functions with PR123/P and PR333/P releases 
Part 2

Electrical devices

1 Protection of feeders

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 
 1.2.1 Current carrying capacity and methods of installation Installation not buried in the ground
 Installation in ground 
 1.2.2 Voltage drop 
 1.2.3 Joule-effect losses 
1.3 Protection against overload 
1.4 Protection against short-circuit 
1.5 Neutral and protective conductors 
1.6 Busbar trunking systems 

2 Protection of electrical equipment

2.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 
2.2 Protection and switching of generators 
2.3 Protection and switching of motors 
2.4 Protection and switching of transformers 

3 Power factor correction

3.1 General aspects 
3.2 Power factor correction method 
3.3 Circuit-breakers for the protection and  switching of capacitor banks 

4 Protection of human beings

4.1 General aspects: effects of current on human beings 
4.2 Distribution systems 
4.3 Protection against both direct and indirect contact 
4.4 TT system 
4.5 TN system 
4.6 IT system 
4.7 Residual current devices 
4.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 

5 Photovoltaic plants

5.1 Operating principle 
5.2 Main components of a photovoltaic plants 
 5.2.1 Photovoltaic generator 
 5.2.2 Inverter 
5.3 Typologies of photovoltaic plants 
 5.3.1 Stand-alone plants 
 5.3.2 Grid-connected plants 
5.4 Earthing and protection against
 indirect contact 
 5.4.1 Plants with transformer 
 5.4.2 Plants without transformer
5.5 Protection against overcurrents and overvoltages 
 5.5.1 Protection against overcurrents on DC side 
 5.5.2 Protection against overcurrents on AC side
 5.5.3 Choice of the switching and disconnecting devices 
 5.5.4 Protection against overvoltages 

6 Calculation of short-circuit current

6.1 General aspects 
6.2 Fault typologies 
6.3 Determination of the short-circuit
 current: “short-circuit power method” 
 6.3.1 Calculation of the short-circuit current 
 6.3.2 Calculation of the short-circuit power at the fault point 
 6.3.3 Calculation of the short-circuit current 
 6.3.4 Examples 
6.4 Determination of the short-circuit current  Ik downstream of a cable as a function of the upstream one
6.5 Algebra of sequences 
 6.5.1 General aspects
 6.5.2 Positive, negative and zero sequence systems 
 6.5.3 Calculation of short-circuit currents with the algebra of sequences 
 6.5.4 Positive, negative and zero sequence short-circuit impedances of electrical  equipment
 6.5.5 Formulas for the calculation of the fault  currents as a function of the electrical  parameters of the plant 
6.6 Calculation of the peak value of the
 short-circuit current 
6.7 Considerations about UPS contribution to the short-circuit 
Annex A: Calculation of load current Ib 
Annex B: Harmonics 
Annex C: Calculation of the coefficient k for the cables 
Annex D: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas 
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Published by ABB SACE
 via Baioni, 35 - 24123 Bergamo (Italy)